392 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION of men of insight the inquiries opened up new vistas of knowledge in regard to the nature of pre-mature man, and gave fuller meaning to the doctrine of evolution as applied to the human soul. This, indeed, is the most important contribution made to educational theory by Dr. Hall. Dr. Hall is first and foremost an evolutionist. His prime interest is in psychic rather than in biological evolution, but he does not put the two in opposition. Nemo psychologies nisi biologus is his cardinal principle. For him, " mind is almost, possibly, quite, co-extensive with life, at least animal life "; and in introducing evolutionary thought into the field of the human soul, he claims to be making a necessary and inevitable extension of Darwinism. Following the lead given by Darwin himself in his Descent of Man and in his discussion of The Expres- sion of the Emotions, he has investigated a great many phases of feeling and will, as the " psychophores, or bearers of mental heredity in us," and out of his investigations has brought the conviction that soul, like body, obeys the law of recapitulation according to which the history of individual growth repeats the course of racial development. The essence of the soul, he says, " is its processes of becoming. It is not a fixed, abiding thing, but grew out of antecedent soul states as different from its present forms as protoplasm is from the mature body. Every element has shaped and tempered it. Its long experience with light and darkness, day and night, has fashioned its rhythm indelibly. Heat and cold, the flickering of flame, smoke and ashes have oriented it towards both thermal extremes. Cloud forms have almost created the imagination. Water and a long apprenticeship to aquatic and arboreal life have left as plain and indelible marks upon the soul as upon the body. Sky, stars, wind, storms, fetish- ism, flowers, animals, ancient battles, industries, occupations, and worship have polarized the soul to fear and affection, and created anger and pity. The soul is thus a product of heredity. It is still in the rough and full of contradictions. Where most educated and polished externally, it still has inner veins where barbaric and animal impulses are felt"* The task of the educator, as Dr. Hall sees it, is to define each stage of individual development as far as the few uncertain clues to the past history of mind permit, in terms of this parallelism* This is his constant endeavour in all his discussion of educational * Adolescence, ii, 69.